Sunday, September 29, 2019
Spc2608 Exam Two Study Guide
Chapter 24: Persuasive Speaking Goal: reach desired ends through an honest means I. Persuasion Ã¢â¬Ëthe artÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬âfaculty of observing in a given case the available means of persuasion. Persuasion is symbolic, non-coercive (not forced) influence 3 factors: ContextÃ¢â¬âsocial, cultural, political climate AgentÃ¢â¬âpersuader ReceiverÃ¢â¬âaudience **Equal opp. To persuade, Complete revelation of agendasÃ¢â¬âlet audience know complete list of goals and how you intend to get audience there, Critical receiversÃ¢â¬âhave to understand whatÃ¢â¬â¢s being said Responsible agentÃ¢â¬âtakes communication seriouslyTake responsibility for what is said and deal with consequencesFosters informed choiceÃ¢â¬âgives all sidesAppeals to the best in peopleÃ¢â¬ânot the worstConsider receiverAware of attempts to influenceÃ¢â¬âbe aware of motivesInformed about important topicsKnow their own biasesÃ¢â¬âknow what predisposes usÃ¢â¬âcareful not to engage in defensive listeningAware of methods of persuasionInfluence the beliefs, attitude, and acts of others Focus on motivation: What motivates listeners? Make your message personally relevant Demonstrate the benefit of change Set modest goalsTarget issues the audience feels strongly about Establish credibilityII. Speeches built upon argument, 3 forms of appeals: Logos, Ethos, PathosLogosÃ¢â¬âappeal to reason or logic, *Aristotle wished that all appealing done through LOGOS *Our ability to articulate rationality, appealing to logic and using reasoning to persuadeEthosÃ¢â¬âcredibility, moral character. To establish speaker credibility: * Present topics honestly, establish identification, commonality, and goodwill, use personal knowledgePathosÃ¢â¬âemotional states of audience.Pride, love, anger etc. rive our actionsÃ¢â¬âDone through vivid imagery **Aristotle said: Two main sources of immediate emotion= LOVE AND FEAR SyllogismÃ¢â¬â Major premise obvious statement Minor premiseextension of major premises logic Conclusionderived from above two MAIN ONE: All humans are mortal Socr ates is human Socrates is mortal RHETORICAL SYLLOGISM=Enthymeme * Created by Aristotle * He claims that this communicates without saying EVERYTHINGÃ¢â¬âaudience can fill in blanks * Idea is that we can fill in the blank ourselvesÃ¢â¬âthat process is powerfulÃ¢â¬âus persuading ourselves 3 cornerstones of ethical fitness:Credibility-confidence, character, ETHOS (as speaker)Ã¢â¬âworthy of trust *Makes people want to listen to us, tend to it with care IntegrityÃ¢â¬âa state of incorruptibilityÃ¢â¬âshould signal that we are willing to avoid compromising the truth for the sake of personal expediency StabilityÃ¢â¬ârespect for others, cooperation, self-sacrifice Being audience centeredÃ¢â¬âto whom and for whom, worthy, honored, and respected as individualsIII. Target listener needsMaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needsÃ¢â¬âeach of us has a basic set of needs that range from crucial to self-improving. Ex. To convince one to use seatbelts, appeal to ones need for safety. basic needs: Physiological, Safety, Social, Self-esteem, and Self-actualizationIV. Mental EngagementCentral processing: seriously consider your message, more likely to act Peripheral processing: Lack motivation to judge argument based on meritsÃ¢â¬âmost likely wonÃ¢â¬â¢t experience meaningful change **For Central processing Link argument to practical concerns, present message at appropriate level of understanding, demonstrate common bond, stress credibilityV. Sound argumentsÃ¢â¬âoffer conclusion, evidence, link to reasoningClaim: states conclusion w/ evidence. A line of reasoning is called a warrant. Fact: Focus on truth/lie, what will/wonÃ¢â¬â¢t happenÃ¢â¬âaddress issue with 2+ sides Value: Address judgment issues, right VS wrong Policy: recommend specific course of actionÃ¢â¬âpropose specific outcome Deductive reasoning: begin with general principle, use specifics, lead to conclusion Inductive: from specific to generalizations supportedÃ¢â¬âevidence pointing to conclusionVI. Logical fallacy: false statement leading to invalid reasoningBegging the questionÃ¢â¬âargument stated so that it cannot help but be true, even without evidenceBandwagoningÃ¢â¬âuses unsubstantiated opinion as false evidenceEither-orÃ¢â¬âgives only two alternatives Ad hominem argumentÃ¢â¬âtargets a person and not the argumentRed herringÃ¢â¬ârelies on irrelevant premise for conclusionHasty generalizationÃ¢â¬âargument where, in an isolated incidence, it proves true and is used to make an unwarranted general conclusionNon sequiturÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"does not followÃ¢â¬ conclusion doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t = reasoningSlippery slopeÃ¢â¬âfault assumption that one case will lead to events or actionsAppeal to traditionÃ¢â¬âSuggest audience should agree b/c its Ã¢â¬Å"the way its always beenÃ¢â¬ Addressing core values: Cultural norms, cultural premises, emotions **BE SENSITIVEVII. MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢sMotivated sequence: 5 step process, arouse listener attention + end wit h call of actionÃ¢â¬âeffective when you want audience to do somethingStep 1 attention, addresses core concerns, relevance, credibility, etc.Step 2 Need, describes issue at hand, shows importance of needStep 3 Satisfaction, identify solutionÃ¢â¬âproposalStep 4 Visualization, vision of anticipated outcomeStep 5 Action, ask audience to act in accordance to acceptance of message 4 pillars of character:TrustworthinessÃ¢â¬âbeing honest, revealing the true purpose. Honest and dependableRespectÃ¢â¬ârecognize audience members are uniqueÃ¢â¬âNO PERSONAL ATTACKS, allow audience power of rational choiceResponsibilityÃ¢â¬âaccountability for what we say and doÃ¢â¬âoffering appropriate appealsFairnessÃ¢â¬âacknowledge all sides of issueÃ¢â¬âgiving the audience enough information to make a decision**In additionÃ¢â¬âCaring and Citizenship CaringÃ¢â¬âbeing kind and compassionate CitizenshipÃ¢â¬âdoing our part as citizens Chapter 16: Using LanguageI. Style * Simplici tyÃ¢â¬âtranslate jargon into common terms * Be conciseÃ¢â¬âuse fewer words, use repetition * Personal pronounsÃ¢â¬âDraw audience in, encourage involvement Concrete language VS Abstract Concrete: conveys specific and tangible meanings * Abstract: general, leaves meaning to interpretation ImageryÃ¢â¬âconcrete language that paints pictures * Figures of speech: metaphors, similes, and analogies where words are used in nonliteral fashion to achieve rhetorical effect Code switching: selective use of dialect that can give your speech friendliness, humor, earthiness, nostalgia, etc. AVOID: * MalapropismsÃ¢â¬âincorrect uses of word where it sounds like it fits * Biased language * Unnecessary JargonII. VoiceÃ¢â¬âactive, indicates subject relation to action Use culturally sensitive and gender-neutral language, shows respect for beliefs, norms, and traditions Repetition to create rhythmÃ¢â¬ârepeating key words or phrases to create distinctive rhythm and enforce idea into mi nds of listeners * Anaphora: Repeated phrase at beginning of successive phrases/clauses/sent. Ex. I Have A Dream-MLK Alliteration for poetic qualityÃ¢â¬âRepetition of same sounds in 2+ neighboring words * Ex. Ã¢â¬Å"Down with dope, up with hopeÃ¢â¬ -Jesse Jackson ParallelismÃ¢â¬âarrangement of words/phrases in similar form Helps to emphasize important ideas of the speech, creates rhythm* Ex. Orally numbering points Device of antithesis (One small step for man, one giant leap for man kind) * Repeating a key word in intro, body, and conclusion Chapter 25: Speaking on special occasions Speech that is prepared for a purpose dictated by the occasion, can be informative or persuasive **Commemorative speechÃ¢â¬âpays tribute with fundamental purpose to inspire audience Employ imageryÃ¢â¬âstylistic devices, varied rhythm * Antithesis, alliteration, assonance * HyperboleÃ¢â¬âdeliberately overstating in a fanciful way * Analogy Use fresh languageÃ¢â¬âavoid overused phrases, select words that capture the thought * Avoid monotony, vary rhythm, use humorWhen using humor: * Familiarize self with devices of humorÃ¢â¬âexaggeration, iron, anti-statement, joke telling * Analyze our own talents when delivering humorous speechesÃ¢â¬âfocus on what other people think is funny about you, not what YOU think is funny * Avoid humor pitfallsÃ¢â¬âsteer clear of anything offensive * Use humorous everyday experiencesÃ¢â¬ârelatable Consider audienceÃ¢â¬âTo whom/for whom we speak * Address audience in ways that will resonate with them * Use mood to craft an appropriate message ** Meaning is created in the nexus between speaker and audienceI.Special Occasion Speech function To entertain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire or set social agenda * EntertainÃ¢â¬âlisteners expect light-hearted, amusing speech. Speaker offers degree of insight on topic * CelebrateÃ¢â¬âSpeaker praises subject of celebrationÃ¢â¬âa degree of ceremony in accordance with norms of the occasion * CommemorateÃ¢â¬âoffer tribute and memories * InspireÃ¢â¬âex. Inaugural address, key note speech, commencementÃ¢â¬âmotivate by examples of achievement * Set social agendaÃ¢â¬âarticulation of goal/groupÃ¢â¬â¢s values, ex. Fundraisers, banquets, cause oriented gatheringsII.Speech of Introduction: Warms up the audience for main speaker, heighten interest, and build credibility FOUR ELEMENTS background, subject of message, occasion, audience * Speaker backgroundÃ¢â¬âachievements and facts showing why speaker is relevant * Subject, Preview topicÃ¢â¬âsense of why subject is of interest, does NOT evaluate speech or comment on it * Ask for audience welcome * Be briefÃ¢â¬â2 minute max.III. Speech of AcceptanceÃ¢â¬âresponse to an award. Purpose: express gratitude for honor * Prepared in advance * Express what the award means to you, convey its value * Show gratitude, thank people by nameIV. Speech of PresentationÃ¢â¬â (1) communicate meaning of the a ward and (2) Explain why recipient is receiving it Convey awardÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning: what it is for and represents, mention sponsors and their link to the award Explain why recipient is receiving it: Highlight achievements, qualifying attributes, and why he deserves it Plan physical presentation: Consider logistics beforehandV. Roast/Toast, roastÃ¢â¬âhumorous tribute that pokes fun, toastÃ¢â¬âshort celebrating speech focused on achievement * Prepare: draft, rehearse, etc. but appear impromptu * Highlight traits: Limit to 1-2 best attributes that convey qualities hat make the person a focus of celebration * Be positive: have a positive tone as it pays tribute to honoree * Be briefVI. Eulogy/other, Eulogy derived from Greek words Ã¢â¬Å"to praiseÃ¢â¬ Usually done by a close friend or family member of deceased Celebrates a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, commemorating while consoling those left behind * Balance delivery and emotionÃ¢â¬âAudience is seeking guidance dealing with the loss, give them closure. * Refer to family of deceasedÃ¢â¬âShow respect and mention names, as the funeral is primarily to benefit them * Be positive, but realistic: Emphasize deceasedÃ¢â¬â¢s positive qualities, but avoid excess praiseVII. After Dinner SpeechÃ¢â¬âlight hearted and entertaining; listeners are to gain insight into topic. Usually given at some time during a civil, business, or professional meeting as it is to follow a formal dinner * Recognize occasionÃ¢â¬âspeech should be on topic to avoid appearing canned or used over and over in diff. settings. Keep remarks low key to be considerate to those eatingVIII. Inspiration SpeechÃ¢â¬âmotivate listener to positively consider, reflect on, or act according to speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s words. Use emotional force; urge us towards purer motives reminding us of a common good. Appeal to emotionsÃ¢â¬â(1) vivid description and (2) emotionally charged words * Use real storiesÃ¢â¬âExamples of REAL people accomplishing goals and tr iumphing adversities * Be dynamicÃ¢â¬âinspire through delivery * Have clear goals * Distinctive organization deviceÃ¢â¬âhelp audience remember message Ex. Acronyms * Dramatic endingÃ¢â¬âinspires audience to feel or act Persuasion Aristotle, called persuasion Ã¢â¬Å"rhetoricÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"the art. Ã¢â¬ Defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"the faculty of observing in a given case the available means of persuasion. Ã¢â¬ Kenneth Burke: persuasionÃ¢â¬Å"artful use of the resources of ambiguity. Ã¢â¬ ¦Stay away from specifics; find ways to have the audience identify with the action or side that we wantÃ¢â¬âmuch like advertising! **Think of Ã¢â¬Å"persuasion as enlightenmentÃ¢â¬âas an opportunity to view a different perspective. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âA chance to create something from nothing by establishing new relationships by sharing experiences, and creating understanding in contentious issues. Ethical Persuasion: Ethical communication and persuasion are an idealÃ¢â¬âour communication improves exponentially the closer we get to this ideal. The goal is to reach the desired ends through an honest means. **Persuasion is symbolic, non-coercive influence.Symbolic communication Ã¢â¬â language is our symbolic representation of realityÃ¢â¬âNon coercive=not forced, we have a choice. In order for persuasion to occur ethically the target of the persuasive message must have the perception of choice, they must understand that they have a choice whether or not to accept the persuasive appeal. In order for this perception of choice to be a reality, several conditions must be met, if these conditions are not met, then the communicative act is coercion not persuasion. Checklist for responsible persuasionÃ¢â¬âshould do before we engageÃ¢â¬âethically, we should aim to ensure certain characteristics/qualities exist.The three factors:I. Context Ã¢â¬â where, the climateÃ¢â¬âcultural, politicalII. Agent Ã¢â¬â the persuaderIII. Receiver Ã¢â¬â audienceI. Context (three conditions that must be met for ethical persuasion) 1. Both/All sides should have equal opportunity to persuade (if we only hear one side we have no choice! ) and ALL sides should have equal access to communication media (but in most cases one needs money for this).2. There should be complete revelation of agendasÃ¢â¬âeach side must notify the audience of its true aims and goals and say how it intends to go about achieving them. This means that you must tell the audience where you want to take them eventually, not just steps along the wayÃ¢â¬âthey should know your ultimate aim, so you should divulge aim.3. The third condition, and most important, is that there must be critical receivers, receivers who test the assertions and evidence available. To be ethical communication there must be people who can evaluate what is being saidÃ¢â¬âan informed public with tools to analyze, or the speaker/agent should provide them tools. It is both the speaker and audiences fault beca use no one wants to take the time to learn, work, critically evaluate, etc.II. Agent 1. The responsible agent takes communication seriously and is prepared to take responsibility for what is said and to deal with the consequences.2. Responsible communication fosters informed choice. We should aim to give the audience both sides of the issues we are advocatingÃ¢â¬âto give them all the information that is available and then inform them why our side is better.3.The responsible agent appeals to the best in people, not the worst. We must be careful not to take advantage of an audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s fears, ignorance, or biasesÃ¢â¬âif people are coerced theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll jump ship later.III. Receiver (four things to consider)1. Responsible receivers are aware of attempts to influence. We must be alert, critical, and constantly aware of the motives of the messages around us and attempts to persuade.2. Responsible receivers stay informed about important topics. Issues affecting us must be inve stigated so that we are ready when persuasive messages hit us.Ã We are the engines of democracy; we must be critical and involved3. Responsible receivers know their own biases. We must avoid defending against messages simply because a message is unpleasant and or challenges what we believe. We must know what predisposes us to look at things in a certain way, and be careful not to engage in selective listening, etc. This helps us to keep from immediately discounting information.4. Responsible receivers are aware of methods of persuasionÃ¢â¬âso we should study and learn methods of persuasion (which you are doing now! ).