Wednesday, July 31, 2019
George Washington Presidential Outline
George Washington I. Background- Birth-February 22, 1723 Death- December 14, 1799 II. Quote- Ã¢â¬Å"The time is now near at hand which must probably determine whether Americans are to be freemen or slaves. . . . The fate of unborn millions will now depend, under God, on the courage and conduct of this army. Our cruel and unrelenting enemy leaves us no choice but a brave resistance or the most abject submission. We have therefore to resolve to conquer or die. Ã¢â¬ (General orders, July 2, 1776) III. Prior occupations- Captain and Colonel in Virginia militia Plantation owner/Farmer Service in the Virginia House of Burgesses Delegate to the First Continental Congress General of the American Army IV. Dates in Office- 1789-1792 1793-1797 V. Prominent issues of elections- Washington was elected unanimously and did not host a campaign VI. Opponents of terms- N/A VII. Vice President- John Adams VIII. Political Parties- President- N/A Congress- IX. Foreign Policy- * WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Proclamation of Neutrality (1793) says that the United States will remain neutral in the series of wars between the French and English as a result of the French Revolution. This proclamation was not viewed favorably by the American people who despised the British and thought that the United States should help the French in hopes of prolonging the Franco-American Alliance. Washington issued this proclamation in spite of these arguments because he saw that remaining neutral in European conflicts as the only way to insure the continuance of the United States. * The Genet Affair (1793) was a series of problems that the French emissary Edmund Charles Genet caused while in the United States. Genet immediately started to drum up support for the French from among the American people, especially here the Republican-Democrats were influential. Genet even went as far as to outfit privateers to attack Spanish Florida. When Washington tried to deport the emissary, he realized that Genets political party had fallen from power and would be killed on his return. Washington allowed Genet to remain in the United States. * JayÃ¢â¬â¢s Treaty with England (1794) was an at tempt by the United States and Britain to settle the problems remaining between them after the War of Independence by representatives of both countries with Chief Justice John Jay acting for the United States. It was almost not supported by the United States because Jay was a Federalist and the Jeffersonians believed that he had forfeited American rights during the treaty in order to appease Britain. The treaty was successful in solving many of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s grievances but also heightened tensions between the two political parties. * The Pinckney Treaty (1795) was a treaty with Spain carried out by Thomas Pinckney to determine a definite border between Spanish Florida and the southern boundary of the United States, free navigation of the Mississippi by American traders and established trading relations between the United States and Spain. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Farewell Address (1796) was an urge from him to the American people and the next President to keep the fledgling country from involving itself in foreign affairs so that the United States could develop more economically and militarily. This leads to the American isolationist mentality for most of its existence. X. Domestic Policy * Washington elected unanimously to be the first president of the United States (1789) * The Judiciary Act (1789) created a three tiered national court system that upheld the principle of the Federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s supremacy while also compromising with the States rights. Bill of Rights (1791) added to the constitution to appease anti-federalists who believed that the Federal Government would squash the states and the people. These amendments helped to help people see the good in a central government. * First Bank of the United States charted (1791) by Congress as a response to HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s financial plan. This congressional decision lead to creation of the Hamilton-lead Federalists and the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans along with controversy over the central governments jurisdiction for years. * Vermont is first admitted to the union after the original 13 colonies (1791) Washington begins second term as president (1793) * The Fugitive Slave Act (1793) was passed by co ngress to prohibit the freeing of persons Ã¢â¬Å"held to Service and Labour. Ã¢â¬ It made freeing slaves illegal and forced States to return and/or help locate any fugitive slaves in the boundaries, regardless of whether they were a slave-free state or not. To do so, the act recognized the roles of Ã¢â¬Å"agentsÃ¢â¬ in recovering these fugitives, authorized judges and magistrates to oversee transfers of slaves, and imposed a fine on any person helping runaway slaves. This was the start of the real slavery issue in the United States. The Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) was battle between the Miami Indian tribes lead by Little Turtle and the American Army lead by General Anthony Wayne. Wayne was more prepared than his predecessors and successfully crushed the Miami tribes in Ohio. * Treaty of Greenville (1795) was signed between the Miami Confederacy and the United States to stop aggressions between the two groups. The United States benefitted from this treaty more because the C onfederacy seceded approximately 25,000 square miles of territory in the Ohio are, more than half of present day Ohio. Naturalization Act (1795) was passed by congress to allow Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ any alien, being a free white person, may be admitted to become a citizen of the United States. Ã¢â¬ This was the first law to define restrictions on who may or may not become a citizen of the United States. XI. Economic Policy- * Samuel Slater sets up first American factory (1790) * Alexander HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s Financial plan (1790) helps to unite the United States through a common problem of debt XII. Supreme Court- None XIII. Social Events- * Whiskey Rebellion (1794) was a revolt by Western Pennsylvanian farmers protesting the new taxes on whiskey. Disbanded by Washington-lead militia without blood-shed. XIV. New Technologies- * Cotton Gin invented (1793) which leads to an increase in cotton growth and the Southern economy XV. Presidential Evaluation- George Washington was a president of the highest measures. He set up the office of the president almost single-handedly and had to settle disgruntled farmers in western Pennsylvania that were specters of the original Revolutionaries. He also had to juggle both the British and French harassments and also choose to not support the new French government in their war against Britain. That choice was unpopular among many of the American people but he kept to his decision because he wanted to make sure that his new nation would continue to exist and hold its own against any foreign power in the future. To rate George Washington is an extremely difficult thing to do. The man set the guidelines of the presidency and was always looking out for the good of the government and the people. I will rate him 10/10 because he is the guideline for all the other presidents to compare to. XVI. Themes- War and Diplomacy- * George Washington Presidential Outline I. George Washington (1732-1799) II. Ã¢â¬Å"I have no other view than to promote the public good, and am unambitious of honors not founded in the approbation of my Country. Ã¢â¬ III. He was a surveyor, planter, and general of the Army of the United Colonies. IV. His term was from 1789-1797. V. There were no prominent issues in his first or scone term and ran unopposed. VI. He didn't have any opponents, it was only a matter of who would become vice president. VII. John Adams was his vice president for both of his terms. VIII. Washington had no political party, and there was no congressional majority yet. IX. Foreign policy decisions Proclamation of Neutrality: prevented Americans from supplying either side with weapons or help, stated that the U. S would not offer protection to Americans who violated neutrality laws, and that the United States would prosecute anyone in its jurisdiction that violated international neutrality. Genet Affair: Citizen Edmond-Charles Genet violated the neutrality laws by planning to use American ports to stop British commerce and support France, which disgraced French supporters in the U. S. Jay Treaty with England: withdrawal of British soldiers in the west of U. S. , commission to settle border issues with U. S. and Canada, commission to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and loyalist losses from Revolutionary War Battle of Fallen Timbers: famous for the decisive victory of the United States over a confederacy of Indian tribes, took place between the two at Fallen Timbers, which was an area full of trees toppled by a tornado, Americans wanted to settle the west but were afraid of the natives Treaty of Greenville: between Indians and Americans, natives give up land in southwest part of northwestern territory and other defined areas, U. S. pays tribe $20,000 and $9,500 a year to split among tribes, tribes can still hunt there Naturalization Act: raised the period of residence from two years to five years before a person could be a citizen Pinckney Treaty with Spain: Spain recognized U. S. borders at Mississippi River and 31st parallel, granted Americans the right to deposit goods for transshipment at New Orleans X. Political Affairs George Washington is Elected: Only president unanimously elected Judiciary Act: established a court of one chief justice and five associate justices, court met for the first time in 1790 Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan: proposed that the federal government take on debts contracted by the states during the revolution, at the national government borrow money to be repaid over a long period, national bank runs it and have taxes to help pay for it, pay off all debts and high tariffs kept out foreign competition Bill of Rights added to the Constitution: added to make all states ratify the Constitution and ensure rights of the people First Bank of US chartered: created by Hamilton to tackle war debt and make one currency Vermont admitted to the Union Second Term: unanimously elected again Whiskey Rebellion: protest on tax of 25% of liquor's value, showed government not afraid to enforce it's laws with it's militia, farmers who sold corn as whiskey hit the hardest and western frontiersmen were main prostestors Farewell Address: country scared that it would tear apart without Washington as president, but he said that whatever changes happened were because of their efforts and success, and he wasn't qualified for being president anyways XI. Economic Decisions Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan: (see above) XII. Major Supreme Court Cases N/A XIII. Major Social Events Fugitive Slave Law: Slave hunters were allowed to capture an escapee in any territory or state and only had to say in front of a state or federal judge that the person was a runaway, captive was not entitled to a trial by jury and the judge's decision was terminal, people hiding an escaped slave could be fined $500 XIV. Major Inventions Cotton Gin Invented: took seeds out of cotton quickly, created widespread cash crop of cotton and revived slavery Samuel Slater builds first American factory: used stolen ideas from Britain to create first American textile factory, hired entire families, including children, to work in his mills; workers lived in company-owned housing, shopped at company-owned stores, and studied in company-run schools XV. Presidential Evaluation President Washington was kind of overrated in my opinion. We glorify him today as if he was perfect and god-like, but most of Ã¢â¬Å"hisÃ¢â¬ achievements are actually a result of his colleagues' ideas. Alexander Hamilton had many of the attainments during Washington's presidency, and really ensured that the country would continue to prosper and pay off all debts. George Washington's best decision was actually surrounding himself with intelligent people to rely on in times of crisis that the new country would go through. His major foreign successes would have to be the Proclamation of Neutrality and his treaties with Europe. The proclamation helped keep the country out of wars and trouble in general at a time of weakness. Any fighting could have destroyed the nation if they lost and it would be back under the command of a European power. His treaties wit Europe gained the U. S. land and respect, helping in the long run. His major domestic successes would be the Bill of Rights and Hamilton's Financial Program. The Bill of Rights made sure that the rights that we still have today would be granted to citizens of the nation, though there were qualifications based on gender and race. Without the financial plan, the U. S. ight never have fully payed off it's debts to Europe and caused further conflict, and it made it easier to pay off with it's extended period that wouldn't require high taxes all at once. He and his cabinet handled the issues of building a nation and having rights for the people while avoiding the tyranny like they had in Britain very well, though he played an almost minimal role in the handling of it. Overall, I rate him 7 out of 10. XVI. Major Themes Slavery: Negative Impact -Passing of t he Fugitive Slave Law -Slaves and black men and women had no rights in the Bill of Rights Invention of the cotton gin revived slavery because of cheap labor and massive production of cotton -Slaves treated like second class citizens with no trial by jury, freedom, or credibility in matters of importance -Status: Slavery is running rampant in the South with large plantations of cotton and cheap easy labor. Though the North opposes it, there are no movements as of yet to abolish it. During the presidency, nothing is being done to free slaves, give black people more freedoms and rights,or find an alternative work force. The status of slavery right now is bleak with no signs of improvement. Social and Political Movements and Reforms: Positive impact for some, negative for others Ã¢â¬â Bill of Rights gives freedoms to some Americans and gives an overall better quality of life than under Britain Ã¢â¬â Slavery was an important social issue that wasn't only ignored, but perpetuated by the cotton industry Ã¢â¬â More jobs in factories, leading to better education with in-company schools and better quality of life Ã¢â¬â Complete political change from the tyranny of Britain o a representative democracy in it's very early stages Ã¢â¬â Status: The country is doing well for being brand new and handling tough situations with good long term solutions. There are some massive improvements over the original government of England, such as education and the rights of the people of the United States, or at least a select few. Major issues like slavery are not being addressed, and are actually being furth ered by the lack of help in finding alternative work forces and advances in the rights of every citizen, not just the landowning white males.