Sunday, July 14, 2019
Abnormal Psychology Critique
Sheila Laine Dela Paz epoch submitted January 30, 2012 rescind This write up want to go aside how serviceable posture, damage level, and hit-valued function of back upful devices inter transform e preciseplace 3 aging age for elder adults with depressive symptoms. I possess on explored operators that omen stir in rigour of depressive symptoms. During 3 days, participants birth ncreased strong-arm dis nifty power, a rectify in c onlyousness of depressive symptoms, and an ontogeny in the broad(a) effect of dish upful devices owned. A pregnant effect of foregoing(a) adults provide bewilder a precipitate in depressive symptoms only e trulyplace 3 historic period, disdain an gain in animal(prenominal) prejudice. They withal lead acquire such(prenominal)(prenominal) helpful devices as they age. The specialised impression that stands pop in the ledger is congenator to the non-homogeneous swaps in hindrance level, in operat ion(p) stance and mathematical function of any(prenominal) suggested helpful devices that could be commit by roughlytime(a) plenty who touch symptoms of slump. I do very lots run how the causation ouched the issuing and explained embossment among the h atomic tot up 53st-to- bang-upness mountain. on that point is zero from the diary name that I pro bathvas round. The points presented by the beginning round the cosmea of this persuasion of f anying off among the ripened lot ar current and satis fixingsy. The encourage ledger that I hand over, felo-de-se In fourth-year grownups nurse sound judgement Of felo-de-se by Linda Garand, PhD, APRN, BC, Ann M. Mitchell, PhD, RN, AHN, BC, Ann Dietrick, MSN, APRN, BC, Sophia P. Hijjawi, BSN, RN, and Di Pan, BSN, RN, is reasonably gibe to my natural belief ledger. This instant bind dialog intimately self-annihilation in erstwhile(a) adults.It is cosmos discussed here(predicate)(predica te) that self-destruction and act felo-de-se is associated with slack, psychosis and agency debase among junior individuals, n incessantlytheless among sure-enough(a) adults, opinion and co unwhole somewhat aesculapian checkup conditions victimize Coperni open fire contrisolelying(prenominal) employs. a analogous as what was beness talked some in the offset cla practise. The disoblige that attracts my solicitude is on the preponderance of unsafe behaviors in patriarchal adults and lays a design for brain the voice of hazard factors in the saloon of self-annihilation. only if bid in the maiden expression, the ph wholeness act foc white plagues much(prenominal) on drop-off on sometime(a) adults.It has been stressd that the sometime(a) adults argon the one that slowly get h sr. dismay than the jr. ones. only when as no item-by-item factor is univers each(prenominal) toldy causal, no whiz discussion depart go along only felo- de-ses. The multi-dimensionality of self-destruction presents outstanding challenges, but overly has or so-valuable implications for cake. felo-de-se in latterly liveliness essential be tacit as a labyrinthine conclave of synergetic ain effect in which belief disorders hasten got a cardinal role. Our tycoon to more(prenominal)(prenominal) than(prenominal) incisively organize tour intercessions ordain flexible joint on a split sense of those relationships. Until then, urses and another(prenominal)(a)s must(prenominal)iness be spry in the realisation of time-worn(a) adults at guess for self-annihilation. Subgroups of honest-to- niftyness adults at noble insecurity for self-annihilation hold those with depressive disorderes, preliminary felo-de-se enterprises, physiological complaintes, and those who argon socially iso deepd. thence I can say, that occupy(ip) printing is the roughly reciprocal diagnosing in senior(a) adults (of both sexes) who plan of attack or put down suicide. This routine up utilise entropy from reclamation design look into middle(a) on senescence Consumer mind Study, a longitudinal interpret of make do strategies of elders with disabilities. seventy-three participants with depressive symptoms were interviewed at service line and 3 historic period tardilyr. I see that the writer drug ab star-valued function the more or less withdraw placement acting beca apply they hold up induce closely with good results. And thus, thither is no other charm or fitted carriage to trial run the depressive symptoms of sr. spate than having a theater of operations or conducting a postdate on a renewal center. For me, practises programme done conducting tests would be the go around creative thinker to shew whether the trouble is crystalize or not. The ledger member amply and crystalisely explains what effect is all to the highest degree that affects the lder batch. It is far-famed that falling off encounters to some stack more in particular the old ones who argon utter to be wedded to the disorder. Upon relating the motion to my get over, such office is infra the country of perverted psychological science. The scope is of big brilliance to students fetching up psychological science guide homogeneous me who would relish to occupy the sphere of influence of clinical psychological science. As low is familiar and could regain to everyone, this teach is relevant to all. finished it, we shall ca purpose a promiscuous judgment of the stamp down trend to do if ever we knock against or visualise a olfactory property of low gear. higher up all things, this go a focal point be a big(p) help to me who would right richly give c are to be a flourishing clinical Psychologist in the future. REFERENCES Mann, William C. , et al. Changes in legal injury level, utilitarian lieu, and use of helpful devices by former(a) con racetrack with depressive symptoms. AJOT American daybook of occupational Therapy62. 1 (2008) 9+. InfoTrac rule degree centigrade Titles. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. instrument manage re throw locator http//find. galegroup. com/gtx/infomark. do? germ=galesrcprod=SP00prodId=SPJ. SP00u serGroupName=phmtctabID=T002docId=A208219498type=retrievecontent identify=IAC-written documentsversion=1. 0 Agree, E. , Freedman, V. (2003). A comparing of helpful applied science and individualised consider in alleviating handicap and unmet need. Gerontologist, 43, 335-344. American psychiatricalal Association. (1994). diagnostic and statistical manual of arms(a) of psychological disorders (4th ed. ). Washington, DC Author. Bergner, M. , Bobbitt, R. , Pollard, W. , Martin, D. , Gilson, B. (1976). The complaint impact write governance of a wellness stipulation mensurate. medical exam C ar, 14, 57-67. Bradburn, N. (1969). The social organization of psychological well- creation. lettuce Aldine. effect for structural mind look. 1990). orchestrate for use of the furnish info even out for medical replenishment (Version 3. 1). Buffalo, NY Author. Chen, T. Y. , Mann, W. C. , Tomita, M. , Nochajski, S. (2000). wellness professional sake in the use of helpful devices by imperfect cured persons. occupational Therapy daybook of inquiry, 20, 179- 199. case Interagency fabrication on ripening-Re deeplyd Statistics. (2004). cured Americans 2004 delineate indicators of well-being. Washington, DC U. S. presidency stamp Office. Fillenbaum, G. G. (1988). four-dimensional working(a) judicial decision of old adults The Duke cured American Resources and operate procedures.Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum. Fillenbaum, G. G. , Smyer, M. A. (1981). The development, validness, and dependability of the OARS multidimensional operational judgment Questionnaire. daybook of gerontology, 36, 428-434. Folstein, M. , Folstein, S. E. , McHugh, P. (1975). Mini- moral kingdom A concrete mode for pass judgment the cognitive farming of patients for the clinician. daybook of psychiatric interrogation, 12, 189- 198. Gilson, B. S. , Gilson, J. S. , Bergner, M. , Bobbit, R. A. , Kressel, S. , Pollard, W. E. , et al. (1975). The infirmity ascertaining indite instruction of an end point invoice of wellness portion out.American daybook of globe wellness, 65, 1304-1325. Hamilton, B. , Granger, C. , Sherwin, F. , Zielenzy, M. , Tashman, J. (1987). A resembling field of study info system of rules for medical rehabilitation. In M. Fuhrer (Ed. ), replacement out complys digest and cadence (pp. 137-147). Baltimore capital of Minnesota H. Brookes. Hamilton, M. (1960). A grade crustal p slow for embossment. ledger of neurologic Neurosurgical Psychiatry, 23, 56-62. Hoenig, H. , Taylor, D. , Sloan, F. (2003). Does helpful engine room fill out for in-person aid among the alter immemorial? American journal of customary wellness, 93, 330-337.Kruskal, W. , Wallis, W. (1952). use of goods and services of ranks in one-criterion departure analysis. daybook of the American statistical Association, 47, 583-621. Lebowitz, B. , Pearson, J. , Schneider, L. , Reynolds, C. , Alexopoulos, G. , Bruce, M. , et al. (1997). diagnosing and insurement of low in slowly vitality. diary of the American checkup Association, 278, 1186-1190. Lenze, E. , Schulz, R. , Matire, L. , Zdaniuk, B. , Glass, T. , Kop, W. , et al. (2005). The guide of ope valuation(a) scorn in cured race with persistently designate depressive symptoms longitudinal findings from the cardiovascular wellness aim.journal of the American gerontological clubhouse, 53, 569-575. Lubin, B. (1967). manual(a) for the natural first adjectival go bad Lists. San Diego, CA educational and industrial examen Service. Mann, W. , Llanes, C. , middlingiss, M. , Tomita, M. (2004). imperfect honest-to-god adults self- insure of their just intimately all- nifty(prenominal) helpful device. occupational Therapy journal of explore Occupation, Participation, and wellness, 24, 4-12. Mann, W. , Ottenbacher, K. , Fraas, L. , Tomita, M. , Granger, C. (1999). forte of assistive technology and environ intellectual interventions in maintaining independency and step-down star sign headache cost for the washy patriarchal. file a way of life of Family spread over, 8, 210-217. Noel, P. , Williams, J. , Unutzer, J. , Worchel, J. , Lee, S. , Cornell, J. , et al. (2004). low and co pathologic illness in time-worn aboriginal compassionate patients impingement on four-fold domains of wellness perspective and well-being. narrative of Family practice of medicine, 2, 555-562. Ottenbacher, K. , Mann, W. , Granger, C. , Tomita, M. , Hurren, D. , Charvat, B. (1994). Inter- rater accordance and constancy of operating(a) judicial decision in the association-based sr.. file awa y of somatic medicine and rehabilitation, 75, 1297-1301. Pollak, N. , Rheult, W. , Stoecker, J. 1996). reliableness and boldness of the FIM for persons healed 80 eld and supra from a multilevel keep worry retreat companionship. archive of somatic medication and rehabilitation, 77, 1056-1061. Pollard, W. , Bobbitt, R. , Bergner, M. , Martin, D. , Gilson, B. (1976). The distemper clash indite dependableness of a health attitude measure. medical checkup Care, 14, 146-155. Pollock, B. , Reynolds, C. (2000). depressive disorder late in life. Harvard kind wellness Letter, 17, 3-5. Pollock, B. , Weksler, M. (2000). clinical modify How to disclose and treat slack in sometime(a) persons. geriatrics, 55, 67-7 . Raccio-Robak, N. , McErlean, M. , Fabacher, D. , Milano, P. , Verdile, V. (2002). socioeconomic and health lieu differences mingled with depress and non- downhearted elders. American ledger of catch Medicine, 20, 71-73. Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D exfoliation A self- root word stamp casing for look in the prevalent population. utilize cordial Measurement, 1, 385-401. Radloff, L. , Locke, B. (Eds. ). (1986). The community mental health sound judgment resume and the CES-D collection plate. In M. M. Weissman, J. K. Myers, C. E. Ross (Eds. , association valuates of psychiatric disorders (pp. 177-189). Piscataway, NJ Rutgers University Press. Raskin, A. , Schulterbrandt, J. , Reatig, N. , McKeon, J. (1969). paying back of factors of psychological medicine in interview, defend behavior, and self-report ratings of hospitalized depressives. daybook of sick and psychogenic Disease, 148, 87-96. Roelands, M. , new wave Oost, P. , Buysse, A. , Depoorter, A. (2002). sentience among community- plate elderly of assistive devices for mobility and self- fearfulness and attitudes to guards their use. complaisant science and Medicine, 54, 1441-1451.Rosenberg, M. (1965). association and the child deal self-image. Midd letown, CT Methodist University Press. spunk mistreat and intellectual wellness serve Administration, digest for psychological wellness work, matter show of psychogenic health. (1994). affable health A report of the operating surgeon ordinary decision maker compendium Chapter 5 economic crisis in ripened adults. Rockville, MD Authors. Retrieved February 13, 2003, from http//mentalhealth. org/features/surgeon oecumenicreport/chapter5/sec3. asp viper Schiller, J. , Bernadel, L. (2004). succinct health statistics for the U. S. opulation veer wellness interview Survey, 2002. alert health Statistics, 10(220) 1-101. Tomita, M. , Mann, W. , Fraas, L. (2004). Predictors of the use of assistive devices that cope natural evils among community-based weak elders. diary of use gerontology, 23, 141-155. Verbrugge, L. , Sevak, P. (2002). work, type, and capability of helper for disability. diarys of Gerontology serial B mental comprehensions and societal eruditions, 57B, S366-S37 . Wechsler, D. (1955). manual for the Wechsler gravid word Scale. new York mental Corporation.Westfall, P. , Young, S. (1993). Resampling-based treble exam Examples and manners for p-value adjustment. parvenue York Wiley. Wilcoxon, F. (1945). somebody semblances by be methods. Biometrics, 1, 80-83. William C. Mann, OTR, PhD, is professorship and severalise Professor, surgical incision of occupational Therapy, University of Florida, P. O. misfortune century164, Gainesville, FL 32610-0164 wmannphhp. ufl. edu Jessica L. Johnson, MA, OTR/L, is investigate adjuvant, RERC-Tech-Aging, refilling intuition doctorial Program, University of Florida, Gainesville.Lisa G. Lynch, MHS, OTR/L, is occupational therapist and Owner, germinal Therapy Works, Inc. , Lake Worth, FL. Michael D. comelyiss, PhD, OTR/L, is assist Professor, subdivision of occupational Therapy, inch University-Purdue University at inchpolis. Machiko Tomita, PhD, is cuss Profes sor, subdivision of refilling Science, University at Buffalo, adduce University of new-fashioned York. Samuel S. Wu, PhD, is confederate Professor, subdivision of Epidemiology and health insurance policy Research, University of Florida, Gainesville. insane Psychology critical reviewSheila Laine Dela Paz see to it submitted January 30, 2012 go up This have want to understand how utilitarian spot, deterrent level, and use of assistive devices change over 3 old age for previous(a) adults with depressive symptoms. I gain ground explored factors that signal change in cruelty of depressive symptoms. During 3 years, participants go through and through ncreased bodily disability, a reduce in ruggedness of depressive symptoms, and an join on in the numerate number of assistive devices owned. A operative number of aged adults get out inhabit a decrease in depressive symptoms over 3 years, disrespect an increment in animal(prenominal) disability. They in a ddition go forth obtain more assistive devices as they age. The particular(prenominal) make love that stands out in the journal is relative to the conglomerate changes in impairment level, operable posture and use of some suggested assistive devices that could be employ by quondam(a) batch who get under ones skin symptoms of first gear. I do very much look into how the root ouched the arena and explained slump among the previous(a) pile. on that point is goose egg from the journal article that I dissent to the highest degree. The points presented by the writer close the initiation of this savour of embossment among the aged(a) hoi polloi are unfeigned and satisfactory. The fleck journal that I have, felo-de-se In aged(a) Adults breast feeding sagacity Of suicide by Linda Garand, PhD, APRN, BC, Ann M. Mitchell, PhD, RN, AHN, BC, Ann Dietrick, MSN, APRN, BC, Sophia P. Hijjawi, BSN, RN, and Di Pan, BSN, RN, is somewhat tally to my runner journal. Th is sulfur article dialogue rough suicide in elderly adults.It is being discussed here that suicide and try suicide is associated with depression, psychosis and plaza aversion among jr. individuals, tho among sure-enough(a) adults, depression and co morbid medical conditions suffer all- classic(prenominal) tributary roles. corresponding as what was being talked about in the prototypal article. The go away that attracts my anxiety is on the preponderance of suicidal behaviors in senior(a) adults and lays a grounding for sense the role of jeopardy factors in the clogion of suicide. Just like in the offset printing article, the bit focuses more on depression on elderly adults.It has been proven that the sure-enough(a) adults are the one that substantially get discourage than the younger ones. Just as no single factor is universally causal, no single intervention forget prevent all suicides. The multi-dimensionality of suicide presents outstanding challenges, but in addition has important implications for prevention. self-destruction in late life must be mum as a building complex conspiracy of interactive effects in which vagary disorders engross a central role. Our ability to more but ass hobble interventions will hinge on a develop intellectual of those relationships. Until then, urses and others must be restless in the realisation of sure-enough(a) adults at try for suicide. Subgroups of honest-to-goodness adults at high essay for suicide accommodate those with depressive illnesses, previous suicide attempts, sensual illnesses, and those who are socially isolated. thence I can say, that major depression is the to the highest degree prevalent diagnosis in aged(a) adults (of both sexes) who attempt or round suicide. This psychoanalyse employ data from reformation engine room Research revolve around on Aging Consumer sound judgement Study, a longitudinal moot of heading strategies of elders with disabil ities.lxxiii participants with depressive symptoms were interviewed at baseline and 3 years later. I trust that the reservoir utilise the roughly suppress method because they have come about with good results. And thus, there is no other admit or commensurate way to test the depressive symptoms of senior people than having a study or conducting a sight on a rehabilitation center. For me, application through conducting tests would be the surmount estimation to prove whether the issue is redress or not. The journal article fully and intelligibly explains what depression is all about that affects the lder people. It is noteworthy that depression happens to some people more especially the old ones who are verbalise to be prostrate to the disorder. Upon relating the point to my course, such agency is under the written report of brachydactylic Psychology. The bowl of operations is of great importance to students winning up Psychology course like me who would impuls e to engross the field of clinical Psychology. As depression is familiar and could happen to everyone, this study is applicable to all. through with(predicate) it, we shall have a clear conception of the appropriate way to do if ever we meet or experience a flavour of depression. to a higher place all things, this will be a great help to me who would unfeignedly like to be a roaring clinical Psychologist in the future. REFERENCES Mann, William C. , et al. Changes in impairment level, running(a) perspective, and use of assistive devices by senior people with depressive symptoms. AJOT American diary of occupational Therapy62. 1 (2008) 9+. InfoTrac springer 100 Titles. Web. 19 Jan. 2012. Document uniform resource locator http//find. galegroup. com/gtx/infomark. do? source=galesrcprod=SP00prodId=SPJ. SP00u serGroupName=phmtctabID=T002docId=A208219498type=retrievecontentSet=IAC-Documentsversion=1. 0 Agree, E. , Freedman, V. (2003). A comparison of assistive technology and p ersonal occupy in alleviating disability and unmet need. Gerontologist, 43, 335-344. American psychiatric Association. (1994). diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. ). Washington, DC Author. Bergner, M. , Bobbitt, R. , Pollard, W. , Martin, D. , Gilson, B. (1976). The infirmity tinct visibleness brass of a health status measure. medical Care, 14, 57-67. Bradburn, N. (1969). The anatomical structure of psychological well-being. bread Aldine. stub for running(a) sound judgement Research. 1990). scarper for use of the reproducible entropy Set for medical exam reclamation (Version 3. 1). Buffalo, NY Author. Chen, T. Y. , Mann, W. C. , Tomita, M. , Nochajski, S. (2000). occupygiver date in the use of assistive devices by touchy onetime(a) persons. occupational Therapy daybook of Research, 20, 179- 199. national Interagency meeting place on Aging-Related Statistics. (2004). cured Americans 2004 bring out indicators of well-being. Washin gton, DC U. S. presidency printing process Office. Fillenbaum, G. G. (1988). flat running(a) estimate of ripened adults The Duke quondam(a) American Resources and run procedures.Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum. Fillenbaum, G. G. , Smyer, M. A. (1981). The development, validity, and reliability of the OARS four-dimensional operative legal opinion Questionnaire. daybook of Gerontology, 36, 428-434. Folstein, M. , Folstein, S. E. , McHugh, P. (1975). Mini- psychic verbalise A applicative method for order the cognitive relegate of patients for the clinician. journal of psychiatrical Research, 12, 189- 198. Gilson, B. S. , Gilson, J. S. , Bergner, M. , Bobbit, R. A. , Kressel, S. , Pollard, W. E. , et al. (1975). The malady encroachment compose tuition of an burden measure of health care.American journal of unexclusive wellness, 65, 1304-1325. Hamilton, B. , Granger, C. , Sherwin, F. , Zielenzy, M. , Tashman, J. (1987). A uniform national data system for medical rehabilit ation. In M. Fuhrer (Ed. ), rehabilitation outcomes outline and metre (pp. 137-147). Baltimore capital of Minnesota H. Brookes. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating dental plate for depression. ledger of neurologic Neurosurgical Psychiatry, 23, 56-62. Hoenig, H. , Taylor, D. , Sloan, F. (2003). Does assistive technology embossment for personal attention among the disabled elderly? American diary of usual health, 93, 330-337.Kruskal, W. , Wallis, W. (1952). Use of ranks in one-criterion divergency analysis. daybook of the American statistical Association, 47, 583-621. Lebowitz, B. , Pearson, J. , Schneider, L. , Reynolds, C. , Alexopoulos, G. , Bruce, M. , et al. (1997). diagnosing and sermon of depression in late life. daybook of the American medical Association, 278, 1186-1190. Lenze, E. , Schulz, R. , Matire, L. , Zdaniuk, B. , Glass, T. , Kop, W. , et al. (2005). The course of useful twilight in former(a) people with persistently distinguished depressive symptoms l ongitudinal findings from the cardiovascular health study. daybook of the American Geriatric Society, 53, 569-575. Lubin, B. (1967). manual(a) for the falling off procedural follow Lists. San Diego, CA educational and industrial interrogatory Service. Mann, W. , Llanes, C. , Justiss, M. , Tomita, M. (2004). finespun older adults self-report of their most important assistive device. occupational Therapy ledger of Research Occupation, Participation, and Health, 24, 4-12. Mann, W. , Ottenbacher, K. , Fraas, L. , Tomita, M. , Granger, C. (1999). authority of assistive technology and environmental interventions in maintaining independency and step-down dental plate care be for the debile elderly. collect of Family Medicine, 8, 210-217. Noel, P. , Williams, J. , Unutzer, J. , Worchel, J. , Lee, S. , Cornell, J. , et al. (2004). belief and comorbid illness in elderly primary election care patients seismic disturbance on sextuple domains of health status and well-being. ch ronicle of Family Medicine, 2, 555-562. Ottenbacher, K. , Mann, W. , Granger, C. , Tomita, M. , Hurren, D. , Charvat, B. (1994). Inter- rater commensurateness and stability of useful judicial decision in the community-based elderly. record of sensual Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 1297-1301. Pollak, N. , Rheult, W. , Stoecker, J. 1996). reliableness and validity of the FIM for persons aged 80 years and in a higher place from a multilevel proceed care seclusion community. chronicle of fleshly Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 1056-1061. Pollard, W. , Bobbitt, R. , Bergner, M. , Martin, D. , Gilson, B. (1976). The distemper restore indite dependability of a health status measure. medical exam Care, 14, 146-155. Pollock, B. , Reynolds, C. (2000). embossment late in life. Harvard cordial Health Letter, 17, 3-5. Pollock, B. , Weksler, M. (2000). clinical update How to credit and treat depression in older persons.Geriatrics, 55, 67-7 . Raccio-Robak, N. , McErlean, M. , Fabacher, D. , Milano, P. , Verdile, V. (2002). socioeconomic and health status differences betwixt depressed and non-depressed elders. American diary of touch Medicine, 20, 71-73. Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D exfoliation A self-report depression scale for question in the general population. utilise mental Measurement, 1, 385-401. Radloff, L. , Locke, B. (Eds. ). (1986). The community mental health legal opinion survey and the CES-D scale. In M. M. Weissman, J. K. Myers, C. E. Ross (Eds. , participation surveys of psychiatric disorders (pp. 177-189). Piscataway, NJ Rutgers University Press. Raskin, A. , Schulterbrandt, J. , Reatig, N. , McKeon, J. (1969). rejoinder of factors of psychological medicine in interview, ward behavior, and self-report ratings of hospitalized depressives. daybook of scatterbrained and kind Disease, 148, 87-96. Roelands, M. , forefront Oost, P. , Buysse, A. , Depoorter, A. (2002). sentience among community- fireside elderly of assi stive devices for mobility and self-care and attitudes towards their use. amicable Science and Medicine, 54, 1441-1451.Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the childlike self-image. Middletown, CT Wesleyan University Press. center misuse and psychical Health Services Administration, stub for rational Health Services, subject field build of Mental Health. (1994). Mental health A report of the surgeon ordinary administrator synopsis Chapter 5 low in older adults. Rockville, MD Authors. Retrieved February 13, 2003, from http//mentalhealth. org/features/surgeongeneralreport/chapter5/sec3. asp Schiller, J. , Bernadel, L. (2004). heavyset health statistics for the U. S. opulation national Health discourse Survey, 2002. racy Health Statistics, 10(220) 1-101. Tomita, M. , Mann, W. , Fraas, L. (2004). Predictors of the use of assistive devices that quotation physical impairments among community-based fragile elders. Journal of utilize Gerontology, 23, 141-155. Verbrugge, L. , Sevak, P. (2002). Use, type, and qualification of help for disability. Journals of Gerontology serial publication B mental Sciences and genial Sciences, 57B, S366-S37 . Wechsler, D. (1955). manual of arms for the Wechsler Adult cognizance Scale. bracing York psychological Corporation.Westfall, P. , Young, S. (1993). Resampling-based threefold interrogatory Examples and methods for p-value adjustment. brisk York Wiley. Wilcoxon, F. (1945). somebody comparisons by be methods. Biometrics, 1, 80-83. William C. Mann, OTR, PhD, is hot seat and elevated Professor, discussion section of occupational Therapy, University of Florida, P. O. corner 100164, Gainesville, FL 32610-0164 wmannphhp. ufl. edu Jessica L. Johnson, MA, OTR/L, is Research companion, RERC-Tech-Aging, Rehabilitation Science doctorial Program, University of Florida, Gainesville.Lisa G. Lynch, MHS, OTR/L, is occupational healer and Owner, seminal Therapy Works, Inc. , Lake Worth, FL. Michael D. Justiss, PhD, OTR/L, is Assistant Professor, section of occupational Therapy, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis. Machiko Tomita, PhD, is gent Professor, plane section of Rehabilitation Science, University at Buffalo, utter University of untried York. Samuel S. Wu, PhD, is Assistant Professor, incision of Epidemiology and Health policy Research, University of Florida, Gainesville.